Compostable disposable tableware, mulch films that rot on the field or fishing nets that simply disintegrate over time: are bioplastics the solution to waste problems? High hopes are being placed in plastics made from sugar cane, potato starch or other renewable raw materials. Ceresana has analyzed the dynamically growing global market for “green” polymers for the sixth time: Analysts expect revenues from bioplastics to rise to approx. USD 8.1 billion by 2030.
Key Role for the EU Circular Economy
Plastics and packaging are central product groups for the “Circular Economy Action Plan” published by the EU Commission in spring 2020 as part of the “Green Deal”. In order to overcome the throwaway society and reduce the amount of waste, the EU Commission is planning, among other things, a plastic tax, restrictions on microplastics and the promotion of plastic recycling. By the end of 2021, new “framework legislation for bio-based, biodegradable and compostable plastics” should clearly regulate and define what is meant by these terms and how bioplastics should be disposed of. Greenwashing is to be avoided by means of a life cycle analysis: Biobased plastics should only be used if they offer real ecological advantages over fossil plastics and do not compete with food production, for example.
Biobased and Biodegradable Plastics
Two groups of materials are considered to be “bioplastics”: biodegradable plastics, which decompose in the wild or can at least be composted in industrial facilities – but also biobased plastics, which are produced from renewable raw materials. These two groups can overlap but don’t have to be identical. Some bioplastics meet both conditions: for instance, PLA from polylactic acid, PHA from sugar and TPS from starch are biobased and biodegradable. However, there are also plastic made from biogenic raw materials that are not compostable (e.g. PEF from fructose or bio-PE based on sugar cane). In contrast, some petrochemical plastics, i.e. plastics produced from crude oil or natural gas, may well be biodegradable.
Greatest Growth in Polylactic Acids and Starc
Biodegradable plastics, for example polylactic acids (PLA) and starch polymers, reached a market share of 65% of the total bioplastics market in 2020. For this product group, Ceresana expects further growth of 10.2% per year until 2030. For biobased plastics, such as polyethylene, PET or PA, which are not biodegradable, growth is expected to be lower with 7.5% per year. Ceresana’s latest market report analyzes how the use of bioplastics is developing in different sales markets. The most important sales market for bioplastics in 2020 was the packaging industry – more than 58% of all bioplastics were processed here. Ceresana expects the highest growth in the market for bags and sacks with 11.1% per year.
Further information: www.ceresana.com/en/market-studies/plastics/bioplastics/